Resources

Library of All ARF Reports

SWANA’s Applied Research Foundation (ARF) publishes reports to inform and guide solid waste managers, regulators, and community leaders on a wide range of topics. ARF subscriber groups determine the topics for their reports. As a subscriber benefit, these groups have free access to the reports for the first year after publication. After one year, these reports are available free for SWANA members and for purchase for the general public. Here is a library of all reports, organized by the subscriber group that supported its development.

Waste Conversion and Energy Recovery Group

PFAS Fate And Transport in Waste-To-Energy Facilities

PFAS Fate and Transport in Waste-to-Energy Facilities

Publication date: June, 2021. PFAS is especially interesting to solid waste professionals because of how difficult it is to remove from landfills. Can thermal combustion plants like waste-to-energy facilities reduce PFAS in waste?
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Energy Recovery Options for Non-Recycled Plastic Discards

Publication date: September, 2020. A report by SWANA ARF, Energy Recovery Options for Non-Recycled Plastic Discards, evaluates system options for recovery of energy from waste plastics.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Fire Prevention and Control at Waste-to-Energy Facilities

Publication date: September, 2019. The Report examines two case studies of large-scale fires at WTE facilities.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Thermal Treatment of Residual Waste: Lessons from Europe

Puiblication date: June, 2018. This report investigates why countries in Western Europe have embraced thermal treatment.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Innovations in Waste-To-Energy Ash Management

Publication date: October, 2016. This report is a follow-on to the 2015 report on "Beneficial Reuse of WTE Ash."
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Beneficial Reuse of Waste-to-Energy Ash

Beneficial Reuse of Waste-to-Energy Ash

Publication date: June, 2015. Little of the nine million tons of ash from waste-to-energy plants is being recycled. This report adresses how to improve that.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Enhance the Benefits and Reduce the Costs of WTE Facilities

Publication date: December, 2013. Full title: Opportunities to Enhance the Benefits and Reduce the Costs of Waste-to-Energy Facilities
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Economic Benefits of Waste-to-Energy: Jobs Creation

Economic Benefits of Waste-to-Energy: Jobs Creation

Publication date: December, 2012. Original title: Economic Benefits of Waste-to-Energy: Jobs Creation and Community Development.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Waste Conversion Technologies

Publication Date: December, 2011. Up-to-date information and guidance on waste conversion technologies (WCTs).
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

The Economic Development Benefits of Waste-to-Energy Systems

Publication date: December, 2011. Waste-to-energy systems have the potential to strengthen local economies.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
The Landfill Disposal Rates of Waste-to-Energy Communities

The Landfill Disposal Rates of Waste-to-Energy Communities

Publication date: December, 2010. This report introduces a new metric: the “Landfill Disposal Index” to compare a waste-to-energy community’s landfill disposal rates with other communities.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Waste-to-Energy as a Green Solid Waste Management Option

Publication date: December, 2009. Full title: Waste-to-Energy as a Green Solid Waste Management Option for Non-Recycled Waste.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Waste-To-Energy and the Solid Waste Management Hierarchy

Publication date: December, 2008. This report ranks waste-to-energy in the heirarchy of solid waste management.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Comparison of Air Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities to Fossil Fuel Power Plants

Comparison of Air Emissions From WTE and Fossil-Fueled Power

Publication date: September, 2006. Waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities are generally more economical when compared to the three most common sources of fuel for energy production, but are they cleaner?
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Comparison of Emissions From WTE and Coal-Fired Power Plants

Publication date: September, 2006. Waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities are generally more economical when compared to coal-fired power plants, but are they cleaner?
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Disposal Group

PFAS Management and Treatment Options for Landfill Leachate

PFAS Management and Treatment Options for Landfill Leachate

Publication date: November, 2022. This report provides solid waste landfill managers with up-to-date information and guidance on PFAS management and treatment options for landfill leachate.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
The Long-Term Management of Closed MSW Landfills

The Long-Term Management of Closed MSW Landfills

Publication date: January, 2021. The SWANA Applied Research Foundation (ARF) addresses key issues around the long-term management of closed landfills following the 30-year post-closure care period required under current regulations.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
Employee, Commercial Hauler, And Self-Hauler Safety At Landfills

Employee, Commercial Hauler, Self-Hauler Safety at Landfills

Publication date: January, 2020. Best practices to keep employees safe at landfills, as well as best practices that landfill managers can implement at their facilities to improve hauler safety.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Benchmarking the Performance and Costs of MSW Landfills

Publication year: May, 2018. This report is an update and addition to the Landfill Benchmarking report published by the ARF in 2008.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
Alternative Final Cover Systems and Regulatory Post-Closure

Alternative Final Cover Systems and Regulatory Post-Closure

Publication date: May, 2017. This report provides up-to-date performance data on alternative final cover systems for landfills.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Food Waste Diversion Programs & Their Impacts on MSW Systems

Publication date: April, 2016. This report provides up-to-date information and guidance on food waste diversion programs and their impacts on municipal solid waste systems.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Alternative Cover Systems for MSW Landfills

Publication date: December, 2014. This report compares alternative cover systems for closed landfills with traditional, prescribed final cover systems.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
On-Site Treatment of Landfill Leachate

On-Site Treatment of Landfill Leachate

Publication date: December, 2014. This report is a comparative analysis of alternative and emerging technologies to effectively and reliably treat leachate with high total dissolved solids (TDS).
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Practical Methods for Measuring Landfill Methane Emissions and Cover Soil Oxidation

Practical Methods for Measuring Landfill Methane Emissions

Publication date: December, 2013. Full title: Practical Methods for Measuring Landfill Methane Emissions and Cover Soil Oxidation. There have been a number of recent breakthroughs documented in this report.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

The Long-Term Environmental Risks of Subtitle D Landfills

Publication date: June, 2011 (peer-reviewed). This report compiles and summarizes what is known about the risks associated with Subtitle D landfills, and introduces long-term care alternatives to manage and minimize these risks.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

The Long-Term Management of Closed Subtitle D Landfills

Publication date: December, 2010. Non-peer-reviewed version.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

The Solid Waste Manager’s Guide to the Bioreactor Landfill

Publication date: December, 2009. Update to the 2002 report.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Benchmarking the Performance and Costs of MSW Landfills

Benchmarking the Performance and Costs of MSW Landfills

Publication date: December, 2008. This report presents the results of a two-year effort to develop a municipal solid waste (MSW) Landfills Benchmark database.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Landfill Gas Collection System Efficiencies

Publication date: October, 2007. This report documents what is known about actual LFG collection system efficiencies based on recent research programs, case studies, and field experience.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

The Trend Toward Regional Privately-Owned Landfills

Publication date: February, 2007. Full title: The Regional Privately-Owned Landfill Trend and Its Impact on Integrated Solid Waste Management Systems.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Landfill Airspace Utilization: Measurement and Management

Publication date: December, 2005. This report establishes measurement standards for landfill airspace utilization.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Moisture Measurement in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

Moisture Measurement in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

Publication date: December, 2004. This technical memorandum provides guidelines on techniques to determine the “in situ” levels of moisture in landfilled waste.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Landfill Stormwater Runoff Discharge Standards

Landfill Stormwater Runoff Standards

Publication date: December, 2004. This research memorandum provides up-to-date information regarding landfill stormwater runoff discharge standards.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Effectiveness of MSW Landfills in Controlling Releases

Publication date: March, 2004 (revised November, 2004). Full title: The Effectiveness of Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in Controlling Releases of Heavy Metals to the Environment.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Economic Analysis of Landfill Gas Turbines

Publication date: August, 2003. Full title: Economic Feasibility Considerations Regarding Landfill Gas Microturbine Systems.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
The Solid Waste Manager's Guide to the Bioreactor Landfill

The Solid Waste Manager’s Guide To The Bioreactor Landfill

Publication date: October, 2002. The bioreactor landfill is an exciting new development in solid waste management.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Sustainable Materials Management Group

Encouraging better curbside recycling behavior cover

Encouraging Better Curbside Recycling Behaviors

Publication Date: December, 2021. Presents costs and effectiveness of educational programs designed to improve residential curbside recycling behaviors.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Reducing Contamination in Curbside Recycling Programs

Publication date: March, 2021. This report from SWANA ARF, Reducing Contamination in Curbside Recycling Programs, addresses key reasons why residents place contaminants in their recycling bins.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
Resetting Curbside Recycling Programs In The Wake Of China

Resetting Curbside Recycling Programs in the Wake of China

Publication date: September, 2019. Information and guidance on resetting curbside recycling in the wake of the China National Sword policy.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Mechanical Biological Treatment of Residual Waste

Publication date: January, 2018. Full title: Mechanical Biological Treatment of Residual Waste: Lessons from Europe.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00

Source-Separation & Mixed Waste Recycling Systems (Expanded)

Publish date: December, 2014. Full title: Source-Separation and Mixed Waste Recycling Systems: A Comparative Analysis (Expanded Version).
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Source-Separation and Mixed Waste Recycling Systems

Publish date: December, 2013. Full title: Source-Separation and Mixed Waste Recycling Systems: A Comparative Analysis.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Options For Recycling Source-Separated Organics

Options for Recycling Source-Separated Organics

Publication date: December, 2012. This report provides solid waste managers with up-to-date information and guidance on options for recycling the organic fraction of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Sustainable Funding Strategies for Local Government Recycling Programs

Sustainable Funding Strategies For Local Government

Publication date: December, 2010. This research memorandum provides up-todate technical and programmatic information regarding sustainable funding strategies for local government recycling programs.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Revenue-Sharing Strategies for Local Government Recycling

Publication date: December, 2009. This research memorandum provides solid waste recycling managers with information about revenue-sharing strategies for local government recycling programs.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Composting of MSW Streams

Composting of MSW Substreams

Publication date: December, 2004. This research memorandum examines whether local waste diversion and recycling rates can be increased through the composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) substreams.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Single-Stream Recycling

Publication date: August, 2003. This research memorandum provides information on single-stream recycling, which is collected in a mixed form and then separated and processed in a materials recovery facility (MRF).
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Recycling and Disposal of Discarded Consumer Electronics

Recycling and Disposal of Discarded Consumer Electronics

Publication date: August, 2002. The SWANA Applied Research Foundation (ARF) Disposal Group researched the state-of-the-art and current research findings for recycling and disposal of discarded consumer electronics.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Cost-Effectiveness of Processing C&D Wastes

Publication date: August, 2002. The SWANA Applied Research Foundation (ARF) Disposal Group researched the cost-effectiveness of processing construction and demolitiion waste.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

Collection Group

Curbside Recycling Collection Options

Curbside Recycling Collection Options

Publication date: August, 2020. This report compares and evaluates dual-stream recycling options against single-stream.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
Recruiting Personnel for Solid Waste Collection Services

Recruiting Personnel for Solid Waste Collection Services

Publication Date: February, 2020. SWANA’s Applied Research Foundation identifies causes and solutions including the recruitment of female drivers
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
Curbside Collection of Residential Yard Waste

Curbside Collection of Residential Yard Waste

Publication date: August, 2018. Full title: Service Options for the Curbside Collection of Residential Yard Waste.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.00
PAYT in Large Cities with Automated Collection

PAYT in Large Cities with Automated Collection

Publication date: July, 2016. Full title: Implementing PAYT in Large Cities with Existing Automated Collection Systems.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Collection of Organic Wastes from High-Rise Buildings and Apartment Complexes

Collection of Organic Wastes from High-Rise Buildings

Publication date: December, 2012. Full title: Collection of Organic Wastes from High-Rise Buildings and Apartment Complexes.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Greenhouse Gas Reductions Through Reducing the Frequency of Residential Recyclables Collection Services

Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Reduced Recycling

Publication date: December, 2011. Full Title: Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Reducing the Frequency of Residential Recyclables Collection Services.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Curbside Collection of Residential Food Waste

Curbside Collection of Residential Food Waste

Publication date: December, 2008. This research memorandum provides up-to-date information about collecting food waste from single-family households.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
The Benchmarking of Residential Solid Waste Collection Services: FY 2008 Report

The Benchmarking of Residential Solid Waste

Publication date: December, 2008. Full title: The Benchmarking of Residential Solid Waste Collection Services.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Dual Collection of MSW and Yard Wastes

Dual Collection of MSW and Yard Wastes

Publication date: January, 2007. This research memorandum provides up-to-date inforamtion on the benefits and risks of the dual collection of yard wastes and regular household wastes.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99
Source Separation and Collection of Food Waste from Multi-Family Dwellings

Source Separation and Collection of Food Waste

Publication date: September, 2006. Full title: Source Separation and Collection of Food Waste from Multi-Family Dwellings
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

ARF Publications - Other

2010 Solid Waste Managers' Salary Survey

2010 Solid Waste Managers’ Salary Survey

Publication date: May, 2011. In 2009–2010, SWANA surveyed public sector waste managers and other public sector organizations with the goal of reporting on compensation and benefits.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99

2008 Solid Waste Managers’ Salary Survey

Publication date: April, 2009. In 2007, SWANA surveyed public sector waste managers and other public sector organizations with the goal of reporting on compensation and benefits.
Member Price: $0.00
Non-Member Price: $99.99